부여출장맛사지➶24시출장샵❧부여타이 마사지 가격(부여체코 마사지)◙<부여경기 광주 마사지>ユ부여마포 마사지┻부여안마방 위키♀ 부여신천 모텔⇤부여무거동 출장★부여누루 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

카지노사이트
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

부여출장맛사지☌출장부르는법﹌부여타이 마사지 가격(부여부산 여관 가격)⇦<부여안마방 키스 가능>♨부여안마방 무한샷┪부여대전 모텔 다방☼부여세r시 마사지┰부여상봉역 안마방⊥부여안마방 스텝

The governments of more than 190 nations 평택fc2 일본 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

부여출장맛사지◀예약▧부여타이 마사지 가격(부여홍방장 안마방)➥<부여불알 마사지>▨부여마사지 성추행ス부여스포츠 마사지卐부여퇴폐 마사지▷부여일본 마사지 야동✃부여안마방 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

부여출장맛사지♡출장부르는법♂부여타이 마사지 가격(부여하남 마사지)┎<부여마사지나라>║부여호치민 1군 마사지✍부여요방형근 마사지╒부여부천 만남↿부여림프절 마사지♀부여안마방 교복

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 진주출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

부여출장맛사지↸예약금없는출장샵⇔부여타이 마사지 가격(부여마석 안마방)▪<부여서양 마사지>▼부여경찰 안마방➻부여서혜부 마사지╧부여연산 안마방☁부여안마방 아영이 토렌트カ부여콜걸강추

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 원주타이 마사지 퇴폐 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

부여출장맛사지♧24시출장샵ナ부여타이 마사지 가격(부여현풍 마사지)♠<부여안마방 카드사용>┓부여올탈 마사지╙부여필승 안마방↾부여홈 타이 마사지 부여마사지 커뮤니티▣부여스포츠 마사지 자격증

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – xlsx.xyz – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

부여출장맛사지부여광양 안마방

  • 진주안마방 마무리
  • 부여신촌 마사지
  • 부여출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    부여출장맛사지✯예약ω부여타이 마사지 가격(부여속초 모텔 가격)ェ<부여안마방 어플>↧부여안마방 체크카드↰부여부산 서면 안마방↜부여마사지 초대☈부여구래동 마사지⇟부여안마방 오랄

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 양양마사지 텀블러 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    수원코 마사지 효과 서울출장안마 서산포승읍 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 군산출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    부여출장맛사지♨예약⇩부여타이 마사지 가격(부여마사지 영상)✲<부여광대 축소 마사지>⇙부여영일대 마사지↬부여송도 마사지♥부여동네 마사지♥부여aktkwl✄부여성인 에이미

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 보령금정 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    부여출장맛사지⇤출장부르는법•부여타이 마사지 가격(부여안마방 감염)╀<부여천안 퇴폐>◢부여콜걸강추↠부여마카오 마사지コ부여용산구 안마방╩부여nhdta 마사지➛부여성감대 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 전주출장안마 .

    금산강서구 마사지
    장흥이태원 안마방 카지노사이트 함양두정동 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    부여출장맛사지➼출장부르는법↭부여타이 마사지 가격(부여세븐 상추 안마방)╝<부여20대 안마방>⇚부여구월동 마사지♩부여강동 마사지╓부여불광 여관»부여청주 마사지»부여분당 마사지 추천

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대전출장샵 .

    부여출장맛사지〓출장부르는법⇠부여타이 마사지 가격(부여사당 출장)⇋<부여나주 안마방>▫부여대전 마사지 후기⇛부여쉼터 안마방┲부여출장업소╀부여부산 하단 출장╬부여경동맥 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 전라남도신천 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    부여출장맛사지╳예약↺부여타이 마사지 가격(부여엘림 마사지)█<부여안마방 풋잡>♘부여안마방 2:1ヤ부여출장코스가격┷부여광주 터미널 근처 모텔♟부여여인숙 가격✿부여이천 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    부여출장맛사지⇖24시출장샵»부여타이 마사지 가격(부여울산 명촌 안마방)▨<부여마사지>☁부여동인천 마사지◦부여서울대 안마방┑부여마사지 나무위키⇦부여안마방 중독◦부여필리핀 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 영주용암동 모텔 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 바카라사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 바카라사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 영동출장 사기 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 서울출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    부여출장맛사지✑예약♐부여타이 마사지 가격(부여정왕 안마방)➷<부여안마방 팁>╰부여안성 마사지ミ부여안마방 야간⇠부여안마방 아줌마▬부여쉼터 안마방↺부여파주 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 목포출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 원주출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    부여출장맛사지ミ예약금없는출장샵╩부여타이 마사지 가격(부여제기동 안마방)►<부여안마방 체험>➽부여천호 안마방⇀부여사천 안마방»부여안마방 vs 오피↥부여삼성역 마사지┤부여강남 안마방 가격

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    고양연예인 안마방
    구미출장안마 봉화남친 안마방 서울출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    부여출장맛사지●24시출장샵▧부여타이 마사지 가격(부여안마방 몰카)⇗<부여출장마사지>♬부여용암동 마사지▣부여정왕동 안마방▣부여질 마사지☆부여수안보 마사지♔부여대구 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.부여출장맛사지부여안마방 발기┷부여모텔 젤↸<부여홍방장 안마방>부여강남 안마방キ부여릉콜걸샵╂부여일본 마사지 섹스➸부여필리핀 마사지◆구미출장안마예약금없는출장샵부여안마방 영어로┧부여방콕 마사지 추천◎《부여전주 모텔 추천》부여아침에 안마방﹃부여광명시 안마방╓부여club 마사지▲부여부산 하단 출장☁부여출장맛사지대전진해 마사지부여지압 나무위키↰부여안마방 알바 후기♩『부여얼굴 마사지 기계』부여양산 안마방✃부여후두 마사지ヌ부여레이크호텔 마사지↕부여마곡 마사지┬부여탈모 마사지☻부여역곡 마사지♧﹛부여마사지 효능﹜부여신당동 안마방0부여성균관대역 마사지☏부여제주도 안마방 추천↡부여안마방 초이스.mp4☼부여성대 마사지╎부여마사지 교육➵『부여상봉동 안마방』부여군포 안마방⇃부여나주 안마방ζ부여안마방 아가씨♛부여마사지 망가┴부여마사지 효과的부여대딸φ﹝부여부평 마사지 샵﹞부여구리 모텔 추천┓부여안마방 튜브╭부여안마방 대딸☀부여안마방 단속 일베╪24시출장샵의왕동대구역 모텔24시출장샵부여안산 마사지►부여양구 안마방☼‹부여출장 후기›부여광양 마사지▲부여해운대 출장◊부여양산 마사지☞부여턱살 마사지✣부여출장맛사지부여출장맛사지포항출장안마부여마사지 ssul부여방콕 마사지부여세부 안마방부여마사지 porn부여출장맛사지부여마사지 배우는곳⇀부여광명 마사지↕〖부여호치민 리버티 마사지〗부여안마방 조루✒부여출장샵추천♠부여대딸 마사지►부여수안보 마사지╩신안평택 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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